Tiananmen Square is a large city square in the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen gate (Gate of Heavenly Peace) located to its North, separating it from the Forbidden City. Tiananmen Square is the fourth largest city square in the world (440,000 m2 – 880×500 m or 109 acres – 960×550 yd).
The Tiananmen Gate to the Forbidden City was built in 1415 during the Ming Dynasty. The Tiananmen square was designed and built in 1651, and has since enlarged four times its original size in the 1950s.
In 1954, the Gate of China was demolished, allowing for the enlargement of the square. In November 1958 a major expansion of Tiananmen Square started, which was completed after only 11 months, in August 1959. This followed the vision of Mao Zedong to make the square the largest and most spectacular in the world, and intended to hold over 500,000 people. In that process, a large number of residential buildings and other structures have been demolished.
The year after Mao's death in 1976, a Mausoleum was built near the site of the former Gate of China, on the main north-south axis of the square. Other notable events invlude the military displays and parades on the 50th anniversary of the People's Republic in 1999. All floor tiles were replaced before the ceremony.
The Temple of Heaven is located in southern Beijing．It was first constructed in 1420, the 18th year of the reign of Ming emperor Yongle，and was extended and renovated during the reigns of Ming emperor Jiajing and Qing emperor Qianlong．It was the place where the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties would worship the god of heaven and pray for good harvest. Covering an area of 273 hectares，it is the largest architectural complex in the world for rituals to pay homage to heaven.
In 1918，The Temple of Heaven was turn into a park，it attracted masses of visitors from home and abroad by the grand scale,，unique buildings and profound connotation of historic culture of offering sacrifices to Heaven．After New China was founded in 1949，the central government invested large amounts of capital in the protection and maintenance of the historical and cultural sites inside the temple．